Top 15 Python Interview Questions and Answers in 2022 - Kochiva

Top Python Interview Questions

python interview questions

In this blog, let us understand the top Python interview questions that you need to prepare to crack any interview. But before that, let’s understand what Python is. We use Python in coding, software development, machine learning, DevOps and much more. It allows readable syntax and facilitates test-driven application development. It is platform friendly and functions on various operating systems like Windows, Linux, or ioS.

 

This blog provides you with the most frequently asked python questions in interviews for freshers.

Q1. What is python?

Python is an interpreted high-level language. It is a general-purpose programming language that allows it to function with multiple applications when embedded with multiple tools and libraries.

Some of its advantages are:

  • Python provides a simple easy to use and learn syntax that enhances readability. The language provides code reusability by encouraging a modular approach.
  • In application development, python is highly suitable due to its high-level data structures using the concepts of dynamic binding and typing.
  • Python is a productive language. its simplicity to solve real-world problems saves time and cost making it highly usable.
  • Python is highly portable in nature as it can provide the feature of “Write once and run anywhere”.

Q2. What are local, global, and Non-local variables in Python? 

Users declare Local variables inside the body of a function i.e. they are in the local scope.

For Example,

def function():

   y=”python”

   print(y)

function()

Users use Non Local variables in python in nested functions where there is undefined local scope. This points out that the variable neither occurs in the local nor global scope.

The users use the nonlocal keyword for defining nonlocal variables.

For example,

Nonlocal x;

The users declare Global variables in python outside of the function. One can access a global variable either outside or inside of a function.

For example,

y = “python”

def function():

    print(y)

function()

print(y)

Q3. What do you mean by PEP 8?  Enhance its importance?

PEP signifies Python Enhancement proposal.

It is a document providing guidelines and information describing the new python features and the processes associated with them. Documented by Barry Warsaw, Nick Coghlan, and Guido van Rossum in 2001, it focuses on improving the consistency and readability of Python code. This document provides the style guidelines for the code thus making it easier to refer to and analyze. PEP8 is also very suitable for development jobs. 

Q4.  What are descriptors in Python? 

Python V2.2 introduced the Descriptors. They allow adding managed attributes to the objects. The methods used to define a descriptor are __getters__, __settters__ and __delete__. Getters and setters are functions which a user uses to adjust attribute values without separate processing. Descriptors use the Python internals by implementing properties and methods. They are invoked by the method  __getattribute__().

Q5. Differentiate between python packages and modules?

  • A python package holds the __init__.py file for user-oriented code. But modules in runtime may not hold such files for any codes that are user-specific.
  • A package modifies the user-interpreted code in a manner that it queues to function at the runtime only whereas a module consists of a file that contains python code for a user-specific code in runtime.

Q6. State the purpose of self in python? 

Self is a variable that signifies the instance of the class. It helps in accessing the method and attributes of a class.

In other languages using an object-oriented approach, It is passed as a hidden parameter to the methods that are defined by an object. However, in python, it is passed and declared explicitly. It is the first object that is created in the instance of a class with automatic parameters. Different individual objects have separate instances.

Q7. Explain  Unit tests in python?

Unit Tests in Python is a unit testing framework allowing separate testing of different components of the software. There are two ways of testing

  • Manual Testing

The testing is done without following a plan. It involves entering various inputs and checking for the expected outputs on a hit and trial basis. This is the most popular way used in testing but is very time-consuming.

  • Automated Testing

The other type of testing, i.e., Automated testing incorporates code execution according to a systematic code plan. It involves running parts of the code that are decided in a defined order.

Q8.  How to create a copy of an object? 

  • Deep Copy

The copy. deepcopy() function is used to obtain fully independent copies also referred to as deep copies of an object. Deep copies are iterative copies of an interior object.

  • Shallow Copy

copy. copy() function provides the shallow copies of an object. These comprise copies of only the outer container of the objects.

Q9.  Difference between Python lists and arrays?

Python Lists –

  • List is used to collect items that comprise elements of multiple data types.
  • List cannot manage arithmetic operations.
  • It comprises elements belonging to the different data types.
  • With reference to flexibility, the list is perfect as it allows easy data modification.
  • It consumes a more significant memory.
  • In a list, the complete list can be accessed without any specific looping.
  • It favors a shorter sequence of data.

Python Array –

  • An array serves as an important component that bundles several items of similar data types.
  • An array can manage arithmetic operations.
  • It incorporates elements of the same data type.
  • In terms of flexibility, the array is not suitable as it is not suitable for easy modification of data.
  • It consumes less memory than a list.
  • In an array, a loop is mandatory to access the array’s components.
  • In an array, a loop is mandatory to access the array’s components.

Q 10. How can a Python Script be made executable on Unix?

#!/usr/bin/env python must be used at the script’s beginning.

Q11.  How do you differentiate between range and xrange? Describe its evolution over time?

Range returns a list of python objects whereas xrange yields xrange object. Although both of them provide the same functionalities. 

Unlike  range which generates a static list during runtime at runtime, xrange uses the method of yielding with large generator objects.

Q12 What does the None value signify in Python? 

Users use “None” valueto portray no value or empty value. A function that doesn’t return anything explicitly is assumed to return None.

Q13. What do you mean by slicing in python?

Slicing means dividing into parts

Syntax is as : [start: stop: step]

Start signifies the initial index from which the slicing has to take place.

The stop is the finishing or ending index where the slicing is stopped.

Step defines the number of steps that are to be jumped.

Q14.What do you understand by the global, protected, and private scope attributes in Python?

  • Another name for Global variables is the global scope. These are the public variables. Users use Global keyword to put the global scope variable inside a function.
  • Private scope attributes are the variables that a user can access only within the scope. One cannot refer from outside directly. Users use two underscores as prefixes for identification.

For example

__data 

  • Protective attributes are the attributes which a user can access or modify from outside. Users put two underscores as prefixes for their identification.

For example

_data

Q 15. Explain the “with” statement in python

Programmers extensively use With statement for exceptional handling in python. It ensures much cleaner and readable code. It helps in the simplification of common resource management such as file streams.

For reference, the following block of code portrays file handling both with the usage of the “with” statement and without it.

# Without using with statement

filepath=open(“the path of the file”,’w)

filepath.write(‘’Python Interview Questions”)

filepath.close()

 

#Using with statement

With open(“the path of file”,’w’) as filepath:

filepath.write(‘’Python Interview Questions”)

We do not need to call filepath.close() when we apply with statement. The with statement ensures the proper acquisition of resources.

Follow us

The knowledge base you maintain is the ultimate guide for support teams for any organization